Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Roma chiese a Cartagine di sconfessare Annibale. In almeno tre occasioni: 255 a.C., 253 a.C. e 249 a.C., intere flotte furono distrutte dal maltempo. Ma poi spettava ora a Roma tutelare la floridità delle città commerciali e marinare del Mezzogiorno nell'interesse della stessa floridità di Roma.  As a result, most of the Gallic tribes declared for the Carthaginian cause, and Hannibal's army grew to more than 40,000 men.  At some time during the next six years Rome made a separate agreement with the city of Saguntum, which was situated well south of the Ebro. Hannibal’s mix of Italian veterans and new recruits numbered some 45,000 men and included 2,000 Numidian cavalry from their ally Tychaeus. La capitale fenicia del Mediterraneo, Introduzione alle guerre puniche: origini e sviluppo dell'impero di Cartagine, Storia del mondo romano. Con le elezioni consolari del 216 a.C. vennero eletti Emilio Paolo e Terenzio Varrone, riprese così vigore il programma offensivo che portò all'ultimo e maggior disastro: presso Canne forse quattro (Polibio dice otto) legioni romane con una manovra di attanagliamento diventata classica vengono distrutte e uno dei consoli, Emilio Paolo ucciso. In questi 30 giorni, si ebbe una frenetica corsa al riarmo. Hasdrubal demurred, arguing that Carthaginian authority over the Iberian tribes was too fragile and the Roman forces in the area too strong for him to execute the planned movement.  The immediate cause of the war was the issue of control of the independent Sicilian city state of Messana (modern Messina). Il trattato poneva i limiti di espansione punica in Iberia a sud del fiume Ebro. These were supplemented with sympathetic Gauls from northern Italy and the Carthaginian pressed on regardless. Web. La rottura dei patti fornì Roma di un pretesto perfetto per poter intervenire e dichiarò guerra all'eterna rivale. Rome might have feared a land battle but they were still masters of the seas, and this meant that Hannibal could not be resupplied. Ancient History Encyclopedia. However, all the Latin colonies and central Italy remained loyal to Rome and this meant that Hannibal’s new acquisitions had to be constantly defended. This action had the consent of the Carthaginian government but it would prove one move too far for the Romans who, having by now dealt with the troublesome northern Gauls and Illyria, demanded Hannibal be handed over for suitable punishment.  By 264 BC, Carthage was the dominant external power on the island, and Carthage and Rome were the preeminent powers in the western Mediterranean.  A Roman fleet carrying the Iberian-bound army landed at Rome's ally Massalia (modern Marseille) at the mouth of the Rhone, but Hannibal evaded the Romans and they continued to Iberia.  The balance were equipped as heavy infantry, with body armour, a large shield and short thrusting swords. A cavalry force of 4,000 from the other Roman army was also engaged and wiped out. La città fu distrutta e fu giurato che non avrebbe mai più potuto essere ricostruita, i cittadini furono uccisi o resi schiavi. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the. In October 202 BCE, the armies of Hannibal and Scipio met on a plain in western Tunisia near Naraggara. Voci in vetrina in altre lingue senza equivalente su it.wiki.  The Carthaginians reached the foot of the Alps by late autumn and crossed them, surmounting the difficulties of climate, terrain and the guerrilla tactics of the native tribes. , The essence of Hannibal's campaign in Italy was to attempt to fight the Romans by using local resources; raising recruits from among the local population. Lo scontro fra le truppe di Annibale e di Scipione avvenuto in posizione incerta (di solito la battaglia è detta di Zama, ma anche dai critici moderni di Naraggara) diede vittoria completa ai Romani (202 a. C.). Macedonia, Syracuse and several Numidian kingdoms were drawn into the fighting; and Iberian and Gallic forces fought on both sides.  It was followed by the Roman capture of Gades, after the city rebelled against Carthaginian rule. Cite This Work Annibale compì secondo molti storici moderni un capolavoro di tattica, ponendo gli elefanti davanti alla fanteria per lanciarli in una carica di sfondamento che avrebbe permesso alle altre forze di attaccare le linee romane scompaginate. Many were from North Africa which provided several types of fighter, including: close order infantry equipped with large shields, helmets, short swords and long thrusting spears; javelin-armed light infantry skirmishers; close-order shock cavalry[note 4] (also known as "heavy cavalry") carrying spears; and light cavalry skirmishers who threw javelins from a distance and avoided close combat. , During 216 BC the Macedonian king, Philip V, pledged his support to Hannibal – thus initiating the First Macedonian War against Rome in 215 BC. This new Carthaginian invasion was defeated at the Battle of the Metaurus.  A rushed Carthaginian attack in late 218 BC was beaten off at the Battle of Cissa. La seconda guerra punica inizia con la vittoria dei Cartaginesi sui Romani. Specularmente, Siface era alleato di Roma e finì la guerra come alleato di Cartagine. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, and it was he who attacked Carthage on home soil, beating Hannibal and delivering final victory. La sconfitta di Pirro a Maleventum sancì il definitivo ingresso di Roma, che arrivò così a controllare saldamente l'Italia centro-meridionale nel novero delle grandi potenze del Mediterraneo. Nel 202 a.C. a Naraggara, nei pressi di Zama, Scipione volse contro Annibale la sua stessa strategia e lo sconfisse, determinando la fine della seconda guerra punica. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.  The Carthaginians continued their march through Etruria, then Umbria, to the Adriatic coast, then marched south into Apulia, in the hope of winning over some of the ethnic Greek and Italic city states of southern Italy. Both legionary sub-units and individual legionaries fought in relatively open order. Tuttavia la situazione non divenne disperata perché la maggioranza dei confederati rimase fedele a Roma.  An army had previously been created by the Romans to campaign in Iberia, but the Roman Senate detached one Roman and one allied legion from it to send to north Italy. This page was last edited on 29 September 2020, at 00:25.  Scipio gave battle to and destroyed two large Carthaginian armies. Agrigento cadde.  It was a century before the site of Carthage was rebuilt as a Roman city. Having secured his position in northern Italy by this victory, Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter among the Gauls. Campaigns of the Second Punic Warby YassineMrabet (GNU FDL). Scipio immediately defeated a contingent of 500 Carthaginian cavalry and then had his army boosted by the arrival of Masinissa’s Numidian cavalry. ausgetragener Krieg (de); sota Rooman ja Karthagon välillä 218 eaa.–202 eaa. Raising fresh troops to replace these delayed the army's departure for Iberia until September.  More formal battles were usually preceded by the two armies camping one to seven miles (2–12 km) apart for days or weeks; sometimes forming up in battle order each day. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 29 May 2016 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Tre battaglie terrestri di larga scala furono combattute durante questa guerra.  The Roman Senate ratified a draft treaty, but due to mistrust and a surge in confidence when Hannibal arrived from Italy Carthage repudiated it. About About CORE Blog Contact us. Hannibal desperately tried to conquer a port city, notably Neapolis (Naples) and Tarentum (Taranto), but all attempts failed, as did repeated attacks on Nola. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the. La prima guerra punica fu principalmente una guerra navale. , The Carthaginians captured the chief city of the hostile Taurini (in the area of modern Turin) and their army routed the cavalry and light infantry of the Romans at the Battle of Ticinus in late November.  Despite these losses, the Romans besieged Capua, the Carthaginians' key ally in Italy. All'inizio della guerra Roma non aveva nessuna esperienza di guerra navale. , With the suppression of the rebellion, Hamilcar understood that Carthage needed to strengthen its economic and military base if it were to again confront Rome. Nel 213 a.C. Arpi era ripresa dai Romani e nel 212 a.C. cadeva nuovamente in mano di Annibale insieme a Taranto, nel 211 a.C. era rioccupata Capua. "Shock" troops are those trained and used to close rapidly with an opponent, with the intention of breaking them before, or immediately upon, contact. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 May 2016. Accordingly, Hannibal left Hasdrubal Barca (son of Hamilcar Barca) in charge of things in Spain and audaciously crossed the Alps in 15 days. The Romans took over the Carthaginian mantle as the rulers of the seas and so, if Carthage were to wrest control back from its arch-enemy, it would have to fight on land, and that required money, lots of it. If either commander felt at a disadvantage, they might might march off without engaging.  The formerly Carthaginian territories became the Roman province of Africa.  By early 215 BC they were fielding at least 12 legions; by 214 BC, 18; and by 213 BC, 22. Egli poteva anzitutto contare su quella sua genialità di generale che poi ebbe piena conferma e sul fascino che la sua indomita natura esercitava sui soldati. Moving to southern Italy in 216, Hannibal defeated the Romans again at the Battle of Cannae, where he annihilated the largest army the Romans had ever assembled. Il peggioramento della situazione in Italia e in Spagna procederà d'allora parallelo per i Cartaginesi. Pagina 14 Numero 2 . Cartwright, M. (2016, May 29). Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Punic_War&oldid=988365128, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 November 2020, at 18:53. Mostrare i propri estratti per iscritto 2. Si sarebbe formato uno stato ricco, esteso dall'Atlantico all'Egitto e militarmente forte. Scipio was not able to prevent Hasdrubal from leading his depleted army over the western passes of the Pyrenees into Gaul. By 214 BC the bulk of southern Italy had turned against Rome. In 211 BC, Rome contained the threat of Macedonia by allying with the Aetolian League, an anti-Macedonian coalition of Greek city states. Nell'intervallo di tempo fra la prima e la seconda guerra punica, Cartagine dovette subire e reprimere una rivolta delle truppe mercenarie che aveva impiegato. Hannibal's Major Battles in Italyby Frank Martini (CC BY-SA). Bellum Punicum secundum inlatum est ab Hannibale,qui Saguntum, Hispaniae civitatem Romanis amicam, oppugnare adgressus est , annum agens vicesimum aetatis,copiis congregatis CL milium. Scipio Africanus the Elderby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). La pace fu naturalmente ora ben più dura. Two of the major Samnite tribes also joined the Carthaginian cause.  The Roman and allied Numidian cavalry drove the Carthaginian cavalry from the field.  Hannibal hoped some of these allies could be persuaded to defect. Hannibal’s father had made his son swear never to be a friend of Rome, and with this solid platform of wealth and arms, he did not disappoint for the commander, still only 26, would become Rome’s greatest ever foe. The final engagement of the war took place between armies under Scipio and Hannibal at the Battle of Zama in 202 and resulted in Hannibal's defeat and in Carthage suing for peace. , In 205 BC Publius Scipio was given command of the legions in Sicily and allowed to enrol volunteers for his plan to end the war by an invasion of Africa. In such circumstances it was difficult to force a battle if the other commander was unwilling to fight. , In 213 BC Syphax, a powerful Numidian king in North Africa, declared for Rome.  They sailed from Croton and landed at Carthage with 15,000–20,000 experienced veterans. The Romans beat off a Carthaginian attack and captured the island of Malta. The expected break-up of Rome’s hegemony and a mass Gaul uprising did not happen. I Cartaginesi, che compresero di non poter resistere, cedettero a tutte le richieste romane, anche a quella di consegnare le armi, ma sebbene già disarmati, si ribellarono alla ulteriore intimazione di abbandonare la loro città (che avrebbe dovuto essere distrutta) e fondarne una nuova a dieci miglia dal mare. Hannibal surprised them by deciding to invade Italy. The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total.  Mago was also recalled; he died of wounds on the voyage and some of his ships were intercepted by the Romans, but 12,000 of his troops reached Carthage. , A rebellion in support of the Carthaginians broke out on Sardinia in 213 BC, but it was quickly put down by the Romans. The clock was ticking and Rome had time on their side. Quando anche Asdrubale fu ucciso l'esercito scelse come capo Annibale, ancora ventisettenne. In 208 BC Scipio defeated Hasdrubal, although Hasdrubal was able to withdraw most of his troops into Gaul and then northern Italy in spring 207 BC.  The new allies increased the number of fixed points which Hannibal's army was expected to defend from Roman retribution, but provided relatively few fresh troops to assist him in doing so. , News of the defeat caused a panic in Rome. L'esercito romano sbarcò vicino a Utica. Realising they were up against one of history’s greatest commanders, Rome changed tactics and adopted a policy of avoiding Hannibal in direct battle, instead fighting only his allies. , The war lasted 23 years, ending in 241 BC with a Carthaginian defeat. He had set off with 90,000 soldiers and 12,000 cavalry, and on arrival he had at his disposal only 20,000 men and half his original cavalry. , In 218 BC there was some naval skirmishing in the waters around Sicily. Led by Mago, Hannibal’s brother, the 14,000-strong force suffered from an inability to land closer to Hannibal’s army because of Roman naval dominance and their control of the major ports. [note 5], Garrison duty and land blockades were the most common operations. Mago marched his reinforced army towards the lands of Carthage's main Gallic allies in the Po Valley, but was checked by a large Roman army and defeated at the Battle of Insubria in 203 BC. It was the long-standing Roman procedure to elect two men each year, known as consuls, as senior magistrates, who at time of war would each lead an army. Gli anni decisivi furono il 209 a.C. e il 208 a.C.. Nel 210 a.C. era stato inviato in Spagna a restaurarvi le fortune romane Publio Cornelio Scipione con un comando eccezionale (egli era soltanto edile) che corrispondeva alla natura eccezionale dell'uomo, in cui fede mistica nel proprio compito e aristocratica finezza di spirito si univano a solide qualità di organizzatore e di generale. Original file (SVG file, nominally 2,052 × 1,637 pixels, file size: 673 KB), https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 , Several of the city states in southern Italy allied themselves with Hannibal, or were captured when pro-Carthaginian factions betrayed their defences. Many senior Carthaginians wanted to reject it, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and it was accepted in spring 201 BC. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. MAA 23; Mazard 60; SNG Copenhagen 499-501. Nondimeno, la situazione poteva mantenersi in uno stato di precario equilibrio se non fosse intervenuto Massinissa. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. It was the second of three major wars fought between the Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Roman Republic. La famiglia Barca era una delle più potenti famiglie aristocratiche di Cartagine, una fiorente città antica situata dell’attuale Tunisia. Sottomise molte popolazioni iberiche e alla sua morte fu sostituito dal genero Asdrubale che consolidò le conquiste fatte, fondò la città di Chartago Nova (oggi Cartagena) e stipulò un trattato con Roma. Parte del relitto di una nave punica affondata in questa guerra è conservata nel Museo archeologico Baglio Anselmi di Marsala.  The modern historian Andrew Curry sees Polybius as being "fairly reliable"; while Craige Champion describes him as "a remarkably well-informed, industrious, and insightful historian". Approximately 1,200 of the infantry, poorer or younger men unable to afford the armour and equipment of a standard legionary, served as javelin-armed skirmishers, known as velites. The two sides' infantry fought inconclusively until the Roman cavalry returned and attacked the Carthaginian rear. Meanwhile, the war was widening. , Meanwhile the Romans took drastic steps to raise new legions: enrolling slaves, criminals and those who did not meet the usual property qualification. Spain, the original flashpoint of the war, was now cleared of Carthaginian forces. That year, Hannibal surprised the Romans by marching his army overland from Iberia, through Gaul and over the Alps to Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy). The Carthaginian formation collapsed; Hannibal was one of the few to escape the field. If the file has been modified from its original state, some details such as the timestamp may not fully reflect those of the original file. L’esercito romano, al comando dei consoli Terenzio Varrone e Lucio Emilio Paolo, subì una tremenda sconfitta. Hannibal established his reputation for near invincibility when he won a battle at the Ticinus (Ticino) river near Pavia and again at the Trebia River in December 218 BCE. Related Content However, the Romans broke through the thinned-out center of the Carthaginian line and then defeated each wing separately, inflicting severe losses, and taking heavy losses themselves. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Macedon too was brought into the war.  The Third Punic War began later in 149 BC when a large Roman army landed in North Africa and besieged Carthage. The Iberians now gave up the Carthaginian cause and Rome had access to the enemy’s silver mines to boost its war effort.  Slingers were frequently recruited from the Balearic Islands. However, only part of the besieging force left for Rome and Capua fell soon afterwards. FAQs.  Hannibal repeatedly defeated Roman armies, but wherever his main army was not active the Romans threatened Carthaginian-supporting towns or sought battle with Carthaginian or Carthaginian-allied detachments; frequently with success. Con magistrale uso della cavalleria sconfisse le forze romane in due importanti battaglie sul Ticino e sulla Trebbia. Fabius knew that, as at Cannae, Hannibal might win direct confrontations, but he could be worn down by blocking his supplies by sea and entrapping him in Italy.  After landing in Africa in 204 BC, he was joined by Masinissa and a force of Numidian cavalry. , A large Carthaginian army led by Himilco was sent to relieve the city in 213 BC. Non è certo che il peso dei corvi sulle prore delle navi sia stato il maggior responsabile dei disastri. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository, segunda guerra púnica (es); Annað púnverska stríðið (is); Perang Punic Kedua (ms); Second Punic War (en-gb); Zweiter Punischer Krieg (als); Втора пуническа война (bg); Second Punic War (simple); Druhá púnska vojna (sk); Друга Пунічна війна (uk); Dr Zwäit Punisch Chrieg (gsw); 제2차 포에니 전쟁 (ko); Екінші Пуни соғысы (kk); Dua Punika milito (eo); druhá punská válka (cs); Drugi punski rat (bs); deuxième guerre punique (fr); Drugi punski rat (hr); צווייטע פונישע מלחמה (yi); प्युनिकचे दुसरे युद्ध (mr); Chiến tranh Punic lần thứ hai (vi); Други пунски рат (sr); Segunda Guerra Púnica (pt-br); Seicont Punic War (sco); Den andre punarkrigen (nn); Andre punerkrig (nb); ಎರಡನೇ ಪ್ಯೂನಿಕ್ ಯುದ್ಧ (kn); Second Punic War (en); حرب بونيقية ثانية (ar); Eil brezel punek (br); Második pun háború (hu); Bigarren Gerra Punikoa (eu); Вторая Пуническая война (ru); Zweiter Punischer Krieg (de); جنگ هانیبال (fa); 第二次布匿战争 (zh); Twadde Punyske oarloch (fy); მეორე პუნიკური ომი (ka); 第二次ポエニ戦争 (ja); Secunde Guerra Punic (ia); המלחמה הפונית השנייה (he); Secundum Bellum Punicum (la); द्वितीय प्यूनिक युद्ध (hi); 第二次布匿战争 (wuu); Toinen puunilaissota (fi); Second Punic War (en-ca); seconda guerra punica (it); Teine Puunia sõda (et); Secunna guerra pùnica (scn); Segunda Guerra Púnica (pt); Ōðre Penisc Gūþ (ang); Drugi punski rat (sh); Երկրորդ Պունիկյան պատերազմ (hy); Druga punska vojna (sl); สงครามพิวนิกครั้งที่สอง (th); Al Doilea Război Punic (ro); Segonda Guèrra Punica (oc); Perang Punisia Kedua (id); II wojna punicka (pl); Втора пунска војна (mk); Tweede Punische Oorlog (nl); Anden puniske krig (da); Ail Ryfel Pwnig (cy); Друга пунска война (rue); İkinci Pön Savaşı (tr); Andra puniska kriget (sv); Segona Guerra Púnica (ca); Β΄ Ρωμαιο-Καρχηδονιακός Πόλεμος (el); ایکینجی کارتاژ ساواشی (azb) guerra tra Roma e Cartagine (it); conflit armé entre Rome et Carthage (fr); de belangrijkste van de drie Punische oorlogen, die Rome aan de rand van de afgrond bracht (nl); segundo enfrentamiento militar entre la República romana y Cartago (es); πόλεμος μεταξύ Ρώμης και της Καρχηδόνας (218 π.Χ- 202 π.Χ) (el); zwischen Römern und Karthagern 218 v. Chr.
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