napoleone era italiano

His Napoleonic Code has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 nations around the world. [246] Dwyer states that Napoleon's victories at Austerlitz and Jena in 1805–06 heightened his sense of self-grandiosity, leaving him even more certain of his destiny and invincibility. Napoleon then occupied the Iberian Peninsula, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, and declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte the King of Spain in 1808. [263] Napoleon was a champion of the metric system and had no use for the old yardsticks. [320] In January 2012, the mayor of Montereau-Fault-Yonne, near Paris—the site of a late victory of Napoleon—proposed development of Napoleon's Bivouac, a commemorative theme park at a projected cost of 200 million euros. French Admiral Villeneuve then retreated to Cádiz instead of linking up with French naval forces at Brest for an attack on the English Channel. [181], The Allies offered peace terms in the Frankfurt proposals in November 1813. [206], There were rumours of plots and even of his escape, but in reality no serious attempts were made. In the public part, Russia ceded 50% of Prussian territory to France; in the private part, Alexander agreed that if the British continued the war against France, Russia would join the Continental System of blockades whose goal it was to isolate Britain economically. German Campaign. [81][82], Napoleon established a political system that historian Martyn Lyons called "dictatorship by plebiscite". Prussia's humiliating treatment at Tilsit caused a deep and bitter antagonism which festered as the Napoleonic era progressed. He was given “sovereignty” over the island, and actually had his own navy. Joséphine de Beauharnais:  First wife of Napoleon, and Empress of France. Treaty of Tilsit. Near-Carthaginian peaces intertwined whole national efforts, intensifying the Revolutionary phenomenon of total war., Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, August 15: Napoleon Bonaparte was born in. The key players among the Coalition members are listed below: William Pitt “The Younger”:  British prime minister during the French revolutionary wars and the beginning of the Napoleonic wars. [174] Although the French had won, the Russian army had accepted, and withstood, the major battle Napoleon had hoped would be decisive. In the first encounter between the two commanders, Napoleon pushed back his opponent and advanced deep into Austrian territory after winning at the Battle of Tarvis in March 1797. [72] The army was left in the charge of Jean-Baptiste Kléber. [125], By August 1805, Napoleon had realized that the strategic situation had changed fundamentally. [310], The large and growing historiography in French, English, Russian, Spanish and other languages has been summarized and evaluated by numerous scholars. However, she seemed to warm up to him over time. [111] In January 1804, his police uncovered an assassination plot against him that involved Moreau and which was ostensibly sponsored by the Bourbon family, the former rulers of France. [179] Heartened by France's loss in Russia, Prussia joined with Austria, Sweden, Russia, Great Britain, Spain, and Portugal in a new coalition. Several new laws restricting the citizenship the Jews had been offered 17 years previously were instituted at that time. In early November Napoleon got concerned about loss of control back in France after the Malet coup of 1812. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. In 1840, Louis Philippe I obtained permission from the British to return Napoleon's remains to France. On 16 February 1808, secret French machinations finally materialized when Napoleon announced that he would intervene to mediate between the rival political factions in the country. [336] Alexandre Colonna-Walewski (1810–1868), the son of his mistress Maria Walewska, although acknowledged by Walewska's husband, was also widely known to be his child, and the DNA of his direct male descendant has been used to help confirm Napoleon's Y-chromosome haplotype. "[224][225][226], Seeking national reconciliation between revolutionaries and Catholics, the Concordat of 1801 was signed on 15 July 1801 between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII. The French launched a major invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. [56], His application of conventional military ideas to real-world situations enabled his military triumphs, such as creative use of artillery as a mobile force to support his infantry. He drew together an alliance with director Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, his brother Lucien, speaker of the Council of Five Hundred Roger Ducos, director Joseph Fouché, and Talleyrand, and they overthrew the Directory by a coup d'état on 9 November 1799 ("the 18th Brumaire" according to the revolutionary calendar), closing down the Council of Five Hundred. Kill your Emperor, if you wish. E.A. [152] He then unleashed his soldiers against Moore and the British forces. Napoleon's army is cut off from supplies and communication. On 11 March 1810 by proxy, he married the 19-year-old Marie Louise, Archduchess of Austria, and a great niece of Marie Antoinette. He rose quickly to general, gaining fame and power as he won victory after victory. Two separate crowns were brought for the ceremony: a golden laurel wreath recalling the Roman Empire and a replica of Charlemagne's crown. With the help of his fellow Corsican Antoine Christophe Saliceti, Bonaparte was appointed artillery commander of the republican forces at the Siege of Toulon. Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more decisive. With several major commanders dead or incapacitated, the Prussian king proved incapable of effectively commanding the army, which began to quickly disintegrate.[139]. [269], From 1796 to 2020 inclusive, at least 95 ships associated with the name of the Emperor of the French were identified as an object of intangible heritage. "[194] The soldiers quickly responded with, "Vive L'Empereur!" Murat was instrumental in securing some of Napoleon’s earliest victories, and was named King of Naples after Joseph Bonaparte was sent to Spain. This brief return to power is known as the Hundred Days, but ended definitively with the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. When Napoleon heard that Prussian troops had orders to capture him dead or alive, he fled to Rochefort, considering an escape to the United States. Paoli had no sympathy for Napoleon however as he deemed his father a traitor for having deserted his cause for Corsican Independence. "[305] McLynn states that, "He can be viewed as the man who set back European economic life for a generation by the dislocating impact of his wars. [95], Whereas the plebiscite two years earlier had brought out 1.5 million people to the polls, the new referendum enticed 3.6 million to go and vote (72 percent of all eligible voters). This helped the French practise their defensive tactic for the Battle of the Pyramids, fought on 21 July, about 24 km (15 mi) from the pyramids. [157] By the second day, reinforcements had boosted French numbers up to 70,000. Ross, commander of the Northumberland. The battle is often seen as a tactical masterpiece because of the near-perfect execution of a calibrated but dangerous plan—of the same stature as Cannae, the celebrated triumph by Hannibal some 2,000 years before. Margaret Bradley, "Scientific education versus military training: the influence of Napoleon Bonaparte on the École Polytechnique". He spent the rest of his life in exile on the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died in 1821. [192] Her name would also be his final word on his deathbed in 1821. France and Austria agreed to an armistice immediately and the Treaty of Pressburg followed shortly after on 26 December. Losing support at home, Napoleon turned to the battlefield where he faced the largest Coalition army yet. They played a key role in collective political defiance of the Bourbon restoration monarchy in 1815–1830. 29, p. 304. The power of church courts and religious authority was sharply reduced and equality under the law was proclaimed for all men. Napoleon's forces fought two Coalition armies, commanded by the British Duke of Wellington and the Prussian Prince Blücher, at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815. [178], There was a lull in fighting over the winter of 1812–13 while both the Russians and the French rebuilt their forces; Napoleon was able to field 350,000 troops. After clearing the last Spanish force guarding the capital at Somosierra, Napoleon entered Madrid on 4 December with 80,000 troops. [4][5] In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about French continental expansion. As they retreated from Moscow, they set it on fire. [124] However, the plan unravelled after the British victory at the Battle of Cape Finisterre in July 1805. [50] He had cleared the streets with "a whiff of grapeshot", according to 19th-century historian Thomas Carlyle in The French Revolution: A History. He was raised as a Catholic but never developed much faith. [51][52], The defeat of the royalist insurrection extinguished the threat to the Convention and earned Bonaparte sudden fame, wealth, and the patronage of the new government, the Directory. [41], Some contemporaries alleged that Bonaparte was put under house arrest at Nice for his association with the Robespierres following their fall in the Thermidorian Reaction in July 1794, but Napoleon's secretary Bourrienne disputed the allegation in his memoirs. Critics said he won many battles simply because of luck; Napoleon responded, "Give me lucky generals", arguing that "luck" comes to leaders who recognize opportunity, and seize it. While the ordinary soldiers and regimental officers wanted to fight on, the senior commanders were unwilling to continue. However, the 1794 decree was only implemented in Saint-Domingue, Guadeloupe and Guyane, and was a dead letter in Senegal, Mauritius, Reunion and Martinique, the last of which had been conquered by the British, who maintained the institution of slavery on that Caribbean island. Napoleon collected five armies to advance into Portugal and 'bullied' the Spanish royal family into resigning. [249] He inspired his men—the Duke of Wellington said his presence on the battlefield was worth 40,000 soldiers, for he inspired confidence from privates to field marshals. [115] Instead he placed the crown on Josephine's head, the event commemorated in the officially sanctioned painting by Jacques-Louis David. British ships were blocking every port. [112] Enghien's execution infuriated royal courts throughout Europe, becoming one of the contributing political factors for the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars. Throughout the winter of 1808, French agents became increasingly involved in Spanish internal affairs, attempting to incite discord between members of the Spanish royal family. Its purpose was to redraw the political map of Europe following the defeat of Napoleon. [citation needed], Following the Ulm Campaign, French forces managed to capture Vienna in November. A byproduct of the French occupation was a strong development in German nationalism. [187] Napoleon was then forced to announce his unconditional abdication only two days later. He was devastated by the news, locking himself in his room and refusing to leave for two days. [159] It was the first defeat Napoleon suffered in a major set-piece battle, and it caused excitement throughout many parts of Europe because it proved that he could be beaten on the battlefield.[160]. He stated later in life:[when?] However, during the Revolution, the National Convention voted to abolish slavery in February 1794. This and other more minor attacks have led historians to debate whether he had epilepsy and, if so, to what extent. In a letter to Marshal Soult detailing the plan for the campaign, Napoleon described the essential features of Napoleonic warfare and introduced the phrase le bataillon-carré ("square battalion"). As in previous campaigns, his fundamental objective was to destroy one opponent before reinforcements from another could tip the balance of the war. Napoleon withdrew back into France, his army reduced to 70,000 soldiers and little cavalry; he faced more than three times as many Allied troops. [142] After a period of rest and consolidation on both sides, the war restarted in June with an initial struggle at Heilsberg that proved indecisive. He never returned to Spain after the 1808 campaign. Twenty-nine French[70] and approximately 2,000 Egyptians were killed. The French people name, and the Senate proclaims Napoleon-Bonaparte First Consul for Life. They can both contain them and use them". [44], By 1795, Bonaparte had become engaged to Désirée Clary, daughter of François Clary. At the Battle of Austerlitz, in Moravia on 2 December, he deployed the French army below the Pratzen Heights and deliberately weakened his right flank, enticing the Allies to launch a major assault there in the hopes of rolling up the whole French line. These negotiations resulted in the Treaty of Campo Formio, and Bonaparte returned to Paris in December as a hero. John Dunne, "Recent Napoleonic Historiography: 'Poor Relation' Makes Good?". William Roberts, "Napoleon, the Concordat of 1801, and Its Consequences". He left the foreign ministry in 1807, alarmed by Napoleon’s ambition. Napoleon emancipated Jews, as well as Protestants in Catholic countries and Catholics in Protestant countries, from laws which restricted them to ghettos, and he expanded their rights to property, worship, and careers. [205] He also studied English under the tutelage of Count Emmanuel de Las Cases with the main aim of being able to read English newspapers and books, as access to French newspapers and books was heavily restricted to him on Saint Helena. The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. [80] The Directory discussed Bonaparte's "desertion" but was too weak to punish him. Napoleon’s army regrouped in German territory, and battled the Coalition successfully in several locations before suffering a decisive defeat in the Battle of the Nations (Leipzig) at the hands of Germany’s General Blucher. [285], Under Napoleon, a new emphasis towards the destruction, not just outmanoeuvring, of enemy armies emerged. On 13 March, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared Napoleon an outlaw. [93], Napoleon's triumph at Marengo secured his political authority and boosted his popularity back home, but it did not lead to an immediate peace. [98] Under the terms of Amiens, Napoleon agreed to appease British demands by not abolishing slavery in any colonies where the 1794 decree had never been implemented. A forced march from Vienna by Marshal Davout and his III Corps plugged the gap left by Napoleon just in time. [329] He formally adopted her son Eugène and second cousin (via marriage) Stéphanie and arranged dynastic marriages for them. [113] Launching yet another referendum, Napoleon was elected as Emperor of the French by a tally exceeding 99%. [83] In the first few months of the consulate, with war in Europe still raging and internal instability still plaguing the country, Napoleon's grip on power remained very tenuous. The two sides reached an agreement, the Erfurt Convention, that called upon Britain to cease its war against France, that recognized the Russian conquest of Finland from Sweden and made it an autonomous Grand Duchy,[150] and that affirmed Russian support for France in a possible war against Austria "to the best of its ability". [129] For the French, this spectacular victory on land was soured by the decisive victory that the Royal Navy attained at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October. Napoleon was crowned Emperor on 2 December 1804 at Notre-Dame de Paris in a ceremony presided over by Pope Pius VII. [167], In 1808, Napoleon and Tsar Alexander met at the Congress of Erfurt to preserve the Russo-French alliance. When she and Napoleon failed to have children, she agreed to a divorce. When he became First Consul and later Emperor, Napoleon eschewed his general's uniform and habitually wore the green colonel uniform (non-Hussar) of a colonel of the Chasseur à Cheval of the Imperial Guard, the regiment that served as his personal escort many times, with a large bicorne. The man I saw was of short stature, just over five feet tall, rather heavy although he was only 37 years old. He became Napoleon II in 1814 and reigned for only two weeks. The Congress continued in spite of Napoleon’s escape from Elba. Strict censorship, controlling aspects of the press, books, theatre, and art were part of his propaganda scheme, aimed at portraying him as bringing desperately wanted peace and stability to France. Sudhir Hazareesingh, "Memory and Political Imagination: the Legend of Napoleon Revisited". For just 2,000 French casualties, Napoleon had managed to capture a total of 60,000 Austrian soldiers through his army's rapid marching. The leaders had a friendly personal relationship after their first meeting at Tilsit in 1807. He negotiated the Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church, which sought to reconcile the mostly Catholic population to his regime. However, he had a keen appreciation of the power of organized religion in social and political affairs, and he paid a great deal of attention to bending it to his purposes. [68], En route to Egypt, Bonaparte reached Malta on 9 June 1798, then controlled by the Knights Hospitaller. The campaign destroyed Russian cities, but did not yield the decisive victory Napoleon wanted. Lowe cut Napoleon's expenditure, ruled that no gifts were allowed if they mentioned his imperial status, and made his supporters sign a guarantee they would stay with the prisoner indefinitely. He liberalized property laws, ended seigneurial dues, abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate entrepreneurship, legalized divorce, closed the Jewish ghettos and made Jews equal to everyone else. Hazareesingh, Sudhir. The constitution preserved the appearance of a republic but in reality established a dictatorship. As a part of the Concordat, Napoleon presented another set of laws called the Organic Articles. ", "1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict", "Napoleon Bonaparte as Hero and Saviour: Image, Rhetoric and Behaviour in the Construction of a Legend", "The Claremont Institute: The Little Tyrant, A review of, "Napoleon Bonaparte and Chess" by Edward Winter, England expects that every man will do his duty, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, Zénaïde, Princess of Canino and Musignano, Charles Lucien, Prince of Canino and Musignano, Napoléon Charles, Prince Royal of Holland, Jérôme Napoléon Charles, Prince of Montfort, Joseph Lucien, Prince of Canino and Musignano, Lucien Cardinal Bonaparte, Prince of Canino and Musignano, Napoléon Charles, Prince of Canino and Musignano, Jeanne, Marchioness of Villeneuve-Escaplon, Marie, Princess George of Greece and Denmark, Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance,, French military leaders of the French Revolutionary Wars, Members of the French Academy of Sciences, Monarchs imprisoned and detained during war, People temporarily excommunicated by the Catholic Church, Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, Recipients of the Order of the Black Eagle, Grand Crosses of the Order of Christ (Portugal), Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint James of the Sword, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2020, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Corsican-language text, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from August 2020, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2016, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2016, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TePapa identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Chapman and Hall, 1923. p. 836. [119], Before the formation of the Third Coalition, Napoleon had assembled an invasion force, the Armée d'Angleterre, around six camps at Boulogne in Northern France. [29] He was examined by the famed scientist Pierre-Simon Laplace.[30]. [10], Napoleon was born the same year the Republic of Genoa ceded Corsica to France. [227][228], While the Concordat restored much power to the papacy, the balance of church–state relations had tilted firmly in Napoleon's favour. [citation needed], The resulting Treaty of Schönbrunn in October 1809 was the harshest that France had imposed on Austria in recent memory. General Melas had a numerical advantage, fielding about 30,000 Austrian soldiers while Napoleon commanded 24,000 French troops. [292] He gave special attention to the advanced centers, such as the École Polytechnique, that provided both military expertise and state-of-the-art research in science. [96], A keen observer of Bonaparte's rise to absolute power, Madame de Rémusat, explains that "men worn out by the turmoil of the Revolution […] looked for the domination of an able ruler" and that "people believed quite sincerely that Bonaparte, whether as consul or emperor, would exert his authority and save [them] from the perils of anarchy. At the start, this French army had about 200,000 men organized into seven corps, which were large field units that contained 36–40 cannons each and were capable of independent action until other corps could come to the rescue. [274], The movement toward national unification in Italy was similarly precipitated by Napoleonic rule.

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